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Decoding of Blood Reports – Part 1

 
How many of us really know to read Blood Reports?

What do the values exactly mean?

To what extent should we worry about abnormal reports?

Given below are a few indicators of Complete Blood Count we should comprehend.
 

1. Haemogloblin:

Haemoglobin is the main component of Red Blood Cells. It is a protein which carries oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body and carbon dioxide from the rest of the body to the lungs.

Normal values:
Males: 13 – 17 gm/dl (grams/deciliter).
Females: 12 – 16 gm/dl.
 
Common changes in the immune system during pregnancy include:
Anaemia (of various types)
Haemorrhage or Blood Loss.
Malnutrition.
Nutritional deficiencies like Iron deficiency, folic acid deficiency, Vitamin B12 deficiency, Vitamin B6 deficiency.
Lead poisoning.
Excessive intake of fluids (overhydration).
 
High Haemoglobin Count suggests:
 
Lung diseases e.g. Lung Fibrosis, Pulmonary Heart Disease, Emphysema.
Congenital Heart Disease.
Polycythemia vera – increased formation of red blood cells.
Tumors, Bone marrow disorders.
Drug abuse.
Chronic Smoking.
 

2. Total Leukocyte Count (TLC):

Leukocytes are White Blood Cells defending the body against infections and diseases.

Normal values: 4,000 – 11,000 cells/cu.mm (cubic millimeter)

Low TLC suggests (less than 4000 cells/cu.mm):
Decrease in White Blood Cells which is termed Leucopenia. It is seen in the following conditions:
In patients undergoing Chemotherapy and Radiation therapy.
Aplastic Anaemia – failure of formation of white and red blood cells.
Influenza.
Typhoid.
Malaria.
Dengue.
Tuberculosis.
In patients taking Antibiotic medications e.g. minocycline.
 
High TLC suggests (more than 11,000 cells /cu.mm):
Increase in White Blood Cells is termed Leucocytosis. It is seen in the following conditions:
It is commonly seen in acutely ill patients.
In new born babies – this is normal and will settle down.
Viral, fungal, bacterial and parasitic infections.
Pneumonia.
Trauma and Inflammation.
Rheumatic arthritis.
Acute gout.
Connective tissue disorders.
Pelvic inflammatory disease.
Cystitis – inflammation of the urinary bladder.
Leukemia (blood cancer).
 

3. Platelet Count:

 
Platelets or Thrombocytes are irregularly small cells essential for clotting of blood and for prevention of bleeding.

Normal count: 1, 50,000 4, 50,000 platelets per microlitre.
If the Platelet Count is below normal it is termed Thrombocytopenia. It is seen in following conditions:
 
In patients undergoing Chemotherapy for Cancer.
Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC) in this condition blood clots are formed in blood vessels.
Haemolytic Anaemia.
Hypersplenism enlargement of spleen.
Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura a bleeding disorder in which the immune system destroys platelets.
Leukemia.
 

If the Platelet Count is higher than normal it is termed Thrombocytosis. It is seen in the following conditions:

Anaemia.
Hyposplenism decreased function of spleen.
Removal of spleen.
Polycythemia vera.
Inflammation.
Essential thrombocytosis a rare chronic blood disorder characterized by overproduction of platelets.
 
Got more questions chat with our online doctor
 

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